Pharmaceutical care planning is a formalization of the activities that clinical pharmacists have been performing for many years. It was originally framed by Dr. Linda M. Strand and her colleagues at the University of Minnesota in the early 1990’s.
Pharmaceutical care planning is a systematic, comprehensive process with three primary functions:
Identify a patient’s actual and potential drug-related problems. Resolve the patient’s actual drug-related problems. Prevent the patient’s potential drug-related problems.
The pharmaceutical care plan is a written, individualized, comprehensive medication therapy plan based on clearly defined therapeutic goals. The pharmaceutical care plan, which is available to all pharmacists caring for a patient, is updated with each major change in patient status. It is important that the physician be informed about the care plan to ensure common goals. Patients should also be informed about the general content of the care plan as means of gaining their agreement regarding drug therapy.
Create patient database:
The first step in the care planning process is the creation of a comprehensive patient database, which includes at minimum, the following information:
Diagnoses and past medical history;
Present medications and medication history;
Smoking/alcohol/caffeine/drug use history;
Abnormal laboratory and physical exam results
Renal and liver function;
Assess drug-related problems
Following the creation of a comprehensive patient database, the pharmacist should evaluate the patient’s drug therapy:
Assess the patient for drug-related problems.
Determine whether drug-related problems are being treated.
Determine whether current drug therapy is appropriate.
Determine whether additional drug therapy is needed.
Determine if any of the drug-related problems may have been caused by medication.
An understanding of the types of drug-related problems that may occur facilitates the evaluation process. Most drug-related problems are the result of:
Not receiving an indicated drug
Receiving the wrong drug
Receiving too little of the drug
Receiving too much of the drug
Experiencing an adverse drug reaction
Experiencing a drug interaction
Not receiving the prescribed drug
Receiving a drug for which there is no valid medical indication
Establish therapeutic goals
Next, therapeutic goals must be established for each drug-related problem so that the pharmaceutical care planning process can be effective. Therapeutic goals should be definite, realistic and, if possible, measurable. Most therapeutic goals relate to:
Approach normal physiology (i.e., normalize blood pressure).
Slow progression of disease (i.e., slow progression of cancer).
Alleviate symptoms (i.e., optimize pain control).
Prevent adverse effects.
Control medication costs.
Educate the patient about his or her medication.
Specify monitoring parameters
Finally, monitoring parameters must be specified so that the patient’s progress can be followed. Monitoring parameters must also include potential adverse effects. Determine desired end points for each parameter and the frequency of monitoring.
Document patient’s progress
The pharmacist evaluates and documents the patient’s progress in achieving the desired therapeutic goals and avoidance of potential adverse effects. The pharmaceutical care plan is updated with each major change in patient status.
Care plan summary
In summary, the general steps involved in creating a pharmaceutical care plan are:
Create comprehensive patient database.
Assess for actual and potential drug-related problems.
Establish therapeutic goals.
Specify monitoring parameters with end points and frequency.
Document the patient’s progress towards therapeutic goals.
The care plan function in Kinetics© is basically just a skeleton that you can expand on because plans will differ depending on the practice setting in which the program is being used. Acute care, home care and long term care all have different monitoring parameters and schedules.
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